According to Dr. David Katz, a practicing physician and researcher at Yale University’s Prevention Research Center, and his Yale colleague Stephanie Meller,
“A diet of minimally processed foods close to nature, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention.”
Katz and Meller, published their findings in a paper titled, “Can We Say What Diet Is Best for Health?”
The Mediterranean diet, which is additionally defined by high intake of fiber, moderate alcohol and meat intake, antioxidants, and polyphenols, has favorable effects on heart disease, cancer risk, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and “is potentially associated with defense against neurodegenerative disease and preservation of cognitive function, reduced inflammation, and defense against asthma.”
These diets ideally included not just fruits and vegetables, but whole grains, nuts, and seeds.
The below articles provide additional information on nutrition and diet.